Saturday, 5 September 2015

English Grammar

Basics of English Grammar

If you just started learning English, you first need to know some basic rules of the language. Developing a solid foundation in English grammar will not only help you create your own sentences correctly but will also make it easier to improve your communication skills in both spoken and written English.

Study all the lessons below and incorporate your learning into your speaking and writing.  Basic English Grammar Lessons. 

Singular and Plural Nouns

A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea.

Usually, the first page of a grammar book tells you about nounsNouns give namesof concrete or abstract things in our lives. As babies learn "mom," "dad," or "milk" as their first wordnouns should be the first topic when you study a foreignlanguage.

For the plural form of most nouns, add s.

  • bottle – bottles
  • cup – cups
  • pencil – pencils
  • desk – desks
  • sticker – stickers
  • window – windows
For nouns that end in ch, x, s, or s sounds, add es.
  • box – boxes
  • watch – watches
  • moss – mosses
  • bus – buses
For nouns ending in f or fe, change f to v and add es.
  • wolf – wolves
  • wife – wives
  • leaf – leaves
  • life – lives
Some nouns have different plural forms.
  • child – children
  • woman – women
  • man – men
  • mouse – mice
  • goose – geese
Nouns ending in vowels like y or o do not have definite rules.
  • baby – babies
  • toy – toys
  • kidney – kidneys
  • potato – potatoes
  • memo – memos
  • stereo – stereos
A few nouns have the same singular and plural forms.
  • sheep – sheep
  • deer – deer
  • series – series
  • species – species

[Quiz 1.1]

Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence.

1)I have three (child, children).
2)There are five (man, men) and one (woman, women).
3)(Baby, Babies) play with bottles as toys.
4)I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box.
5)A few men wear (watch, watches).
6)I put a (memo, memos) on the desk.
7)I saw a (mouse, mice) running by.
8)There are few (bus, buses) on the road today.
1) children
2) men, woman
3) Babies
4) potatoes
5) watches
6) memo
7) mouse
8) buses

Count Nouns vs. Non-Count Nouns

Count nouns

Can be counted as one or more.
  • pen, computer, bottle, spoon, desk, cup, television, chair, shoe, finger, flower, camera, stick, balloon, book, table, comb, etc.
Take an s to form the plural.
  • pens, computers, bottles, spoons, desks, cups, televisions, chairs, shoes, fingers, flowers, cameras, sticks, balloons, books, tables, combs, etc.
Work with expressions such as (a few, few, many, some, every, each, these, and the number of).
  • a few pens, a few computers, many bottles, some spoons, every desk, each cup, these televisions, the number of chairs, a few shoes, a few fingers, many flowers, some cameras, every stick, each balloon, these books, the number of tables, many combs, etc.
Work with appropriate articles (a, an, or the).
  • a pen, the computer, a bottle, the spoon, a desk, the cup, a television, the chair, a shoe, the finger, a flower, the camera, a stick, the balloon, a book, the table, a comb, etc.
Do NOT work with much (for example, you would never say much pens or much computers).

Non-count nouns

Cannot be counted. They usually express a group or a type.
  • water, wood, ice, air, oxygen, English, Spanish, traffic, furniture, milk, wine, sugar, rice, meat, flour, soccer, sunshine, etc.
Generally cannot be pluralized.

Work both with and without an article (a, an, or the), depending on the context of the sentence.

  • Sugar is sweet.
  • The sunshine is beautiful.
  • I drink milk.
  • He eats rice.
  • We watch soccer together.
  • The wood is burning.
Work with expressions such as (some, any, enough, this, that, and much).
  • We ate some rice and milk.
  • I hope to see some sunshine today.
  • This meat is good.
  • She does not speak much Spanish.
  • Do you see any traffic on the road?
  • That wine is very old.
Do NOT work with expressions such as (these, those, every, each, either, or neither).

[Quiz 2.1]

Choose all of the non-count nouns in the following list:

wine, student, pen, water, wind, milk, computer, furniture, cup, rice, box, watch, potato, wood
wine, water, wind, milk, furniture, rice, wood    

Possessive Nouns

Possessive nouns are used to indicate ownership.

Possessive nouns usually are formed by adding an apostrophe (') and s.

  • John's book
  • Kerry's car
  • Grandma's mirror
When a noun is plural and ends in s, just add an apostrophe (').

  • The kids' toys
  • My parents' house
  • The teachers' lounge
If two people own one thing, add the apostrophe and s to the second person only.

  • John and Mary's new house
  • David and Sue's wedding
  • Tom and Doug's car
If two people own separate things, add the apostrophe and s for each person.

  • Susan's and Beth's books
  • Jean's and Dan's pants
  • Ben's and Jim's offices

[Quiz 3.1]

Which of the following is not correct?

1)Dr. Hunts has a new computer.
2)Dr. Hunts's new computer is working well.
3)Dr. Hunts' computer is new.


Both 2 and 3 are the correct answers. In your writing, you should be consistent. If you choose to leave the final 's' out, then leave it out throughout your writing.


A pronoun takes the place of a noun.

Example story:

Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. Mary works with Mr. James and Mr. James' son Tom. Mr. James and Mr. James' son Tom are experts in biochemistry. Mary, Mr. James, and Tom researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment.

If the story above is written using pronouns:

Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. She works with Mr. James andhis son Tom. He and his son Tom are experts in biochemistry. They researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment.

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns refer to a person:

  • I go to school.
  • You are a student.
  • They are Koreans.
  • He works here.
  • We gave her food.
The word ‘it' refers to an object:

  • I drank it.
  • It is big.
  • They cut it into halves.
Memorize the personal pronouns:

Singular SubjectIyouhesheit
Singular Objectmeyouhimherit
Singular Reflexivemyselfyourselfhimselfherselfitself
Plural Subjectweyouthey
Plural Objectusyouthem
Plural Reflexiveourselvesyourselvesthemselves

[Quiz 4.1]

Write the correct pronoun in each blank.

1)I ate an apple.                     was delicious.
2)You look tired.                     should rest.
3)She is a teacher. I gave                    a book.
4)They are my friends. I like                     very much.
5)He saw the movie.                     was fun.

1) it
2) you
3) her
4) them
5) it

'Be' Verbs

A verb shows action or a state of being.

go home. Home is my place to rest. I like the smell of my house. I feel totally relaxed. Home refreshes me. At home, I get ready for a new day.

"Be" verbs indicate a state of being.

Verbs must match subjects.

  • am a doctor.
  • He is sleepy.
  • We are here.
Negative sentences need ‘not' after the verb.

  • I am not a doctor.
  • He is not sleepy.
  • We are not there.
The verb comes first in interrogative sentences.

  • Am I a doctor?
  • Is he sleepy?
  • Are we there?
"Are not" (is not) can be shortened to "aren't" (isn't).

  • He isn't sleepy.
  • We aren't there.
Remember the variations of "be" verbs:

I amI am notAm I?
You areYou are not (aren't)Are you?
He isHe is not (isn't)Is he?
She isShe is not (isn't)Is she?
It isIt is not (isn't)Isn't it?
We areWe are not (aren't)Are we?
You areYou are not (aren't)Are you?
They areThey are not (aren't)Are they?

[Quiz 5.1]

Which of the following sentences are written correctly?

1)I am thirsty.
2)You are kind.
3)He am not sad.
4)She are not tall.
5)It is not moving.
6)We aren't tired.
7)Is they running?
8)Are you ready?


1, 2, 5, 6, and 8

                                                             [TO BE CONTINUED]